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I. Ensuring People's Right to Health Based on China'sConditions


China is a large developing country with 1.3 billion people. TheCPC and the Chinese government have always attached greatimportance to developing the medical and health services Kyle Walker England Jersey , totransforming the development model of the health sector, and torespecting and protecting citizens' right to health. A mechanismbased on China's conditions to ensure the people's right to healthhas been put in place.


When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, Chinahad a weak medical and health system due to low levels ofdevelopment in its economy and society. The nation had only 3,670medical and health institutions, 541,000 health workers and 85,000beds at health institutions. The average life expectancy was 35years. To change this situation, the government devoted greatefforts to developing the medical and health services Ryan Bertrand England Jersey , andimplemented guidelines which stipulated that the health serviceswere to serve vast majority of the people, that prevention shouldbe stressed, that both Western medicine and Traditional ChineseMedicine (TCM) should be utilized, and that health promotion andpeople's involvement should be incorporated. The people weremobilized to carry out health promotion programs, and basicknowledge about healthcare was widely spread. All this greatlyenhanced the people's health, and major breakthroughs were made inmedical sciences. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified for thefirst time by Chinese scientists; Chinese doctors performed theworld's first replantation of a severed limb; and artemisinin, aneffective cure for malaria, was extracted in a Chineselaboratory.


Following the introduction of the reform and opening-up drive in1978 Danny Rose England Jersey , to address problems such as a severe shortage of medical andhealth resources and a lack of service capability and lowefficiency, the government allowed multi-channel financing for themedical industry, and encouraged medical development in variousforms, by increasing resource supply, opening up thepharmaceuticals manufacturing and circulation market, developingthe pharmaceutical industry, and promoting TCM. Economic incentiveswere adopted to encourage medical personnel to enhance theirperformance. At the First National Health Service Meeting in 1996,a decision was made on implementing the guiding principles forhealth services in the new era Kieran Trippier England Jersey , namely, "focusing on the ruralareas, prioritizing prevention, equal emphasis on Western medicineand TCM, relying on science and education, encouraging publicparticipation, promoting public health, and serving socialistmodernization." In 1998 Joe Hart England Jersey , China began to form a social medicalinsurance system to cover the basic medical needs of workers. In2000, it set the goal of establishing an urban medical andhealthcare system in line with the socialist market economy, sothat the people could enjoy reasonably priced, high-quality medicalservices, and thus become healthier. In 2002, the governmentreleased the Decision on Further Enhancing Health Services in RuralAreas. Taking into consideration the levels of economic and socialdevelopment in rural areas, the government decided to drive healthservices reform to a deeper level, and put in more funding to ruralareas Jordan Pickford World Cup Jersey , to provide different levels of medical services to ruralresidents.


In 2003, under the firm leadership of the Party and thegovernment, the Chinese people, united as one, won a decisivevictory in their combat against the severe acute respiratorysyndrome (SARS) pandemic. Learning a lesson from this experience,the government took comprehensive measures to improve public healthservices, and the prevention and control of serious diseases.Marked progress was made in the prevention and control system forserious diseases, in the response mechanism for public healthemergencies Marcus Rashford World Cup Jersey , in the development of community healthcare services inrural and urban areas, and in the new-type rural cooperativemedical care and basic medical insurance for urban residents.


In 2009, China launched a new round of reform of the medical andhealthcare system. With the release of the Opinions on DeepeningReform of the Medical and Healthcare System, the governmentdelivered a message that the basic medical and healthcare systemshould be available to all citizens as a public product. Thenonprofit nature of public medical and healthcare was made clear.In the document it was proposed that China would develop the "foursystems" of public health, medical services, medical security anddrug supply and the "eight supporting mechanisms" of medical andhealthcare management, operation, investment Danny Welbeck World Cup Jersey , pricing, supervision,technology and personnel, information, and law-based development,in an effort to form a basic medical and healthcare system andpromote the all-round, balanced, and sustainable development of thehealth sector. Soon after that Dele Alli World Cup Jersey , China issued the Plan for ReformingKey Areas of the Medical and Healthcare System (2009-2011) and Planfor Deepening Reform of the Medical and Healthcare System duringthe 12th Five-Year Plan Period (2011-2015). In these two documents,the government set the goals of the reform, which were acceleratingthe basic medical security system, improving community-levelmedical and healthcare services, and promoting equal access tobasic public health services.


Since 2012 China has redoubled its effort to reform the medicaland healthcare system; it has accelerated the comprehensive reformof public hospitals and the price reform of drugs and medicalservice; it has also implemented serious illness insurance policiescovering both urban and rural residents, adopted a multi-layerdiagnosis and treatment mechanism, and improved the policiesregarding the production, distribution and use of drugs. On October29 Lewis Cook World Cup Jersey , 2015, enhancing public health and fitness was formallyintroduced in the communique of the Fifth Plenary Session of the18th CPC Central Committee. In August 2016, at the National Healthand Fitnes"

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