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April Aldridge
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Dołączył: 21 Lis 2019
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ÿþThe puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, puma shoes occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range.

Prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in puma trainers the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.The puma ( Puma concolor Linnaeus, 1771) is a large felid that ranges throughout the Americas.

However, since the puma suede credibility interval of this estimate slightly overlaps the timing of the GABI, this issue is still not fully settled. Interestingly, Barnett et al. (2005) provided molecular evidence indicating that the extinct North American felid Miracinonyx trumani is the puma's closest relative, with a divergence time estimated at 3.19 MYA. This finding would support the hypothesis of a North American origin for the puma, with subsequent colonization of South America by this species.

We obtained puma sliders blood and tissue samples from 77 pumas including wild individuals captured during field-ecology projects, caught by farmers or road-killed, as well as captive animals with known geographic origin ( Table S1 ). In addition, we also collected data from 109 additional individuals whose DNA was already available in the participant laboratories, some of which had been used in earlier genetic studies employing different markers .

We initially examined the mtDNA fragments used in previous studies, especially those involving Neotropical felids ( e.g. Eizirik et al. , 1998 , 2001 ; Johnson et al. , 1998 , 1999 ; Culver et al. , 2000 ). We selected the ca. 750 bp-long fragment of the ND5 gene reported by Trigo et al. puma uk (2008) , thus considerably increasing the information content derived from this marker relative to the previous phylogeographic study of the puma ( Culver et al. , 2000 ). Finally.

We explored two outgroup options for rooting the network, one with the P. yagouaroundi sequences generated here, and the other employing M. trumani sequences ( Barnett et al. , 2005 ).AMOVAs were performed using ¦ st computed from a pairwise matrix based on p -distances. Statistical significance of ¦ st values was tested using 10,000 permutations. scenarios attempting to identify the best possible way to represent historical population structure in this species.
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